In the serious sports world, FITT is meant for the general population of societies who are basically striving for a more active life-style as their peak performance in sports. For those who are more serious, training principles ought to be more advance so that training becomes more scientific and predictable for peak performance in sports. Here are the six advanced sports training principles for more serious athletes.
In many ways, specificity is similar to what we have discussed under the type or training activities under FITT. The reference here is to the kind of sports activities been used to boast peak performance in sports. When it comes to more serious sports training, it is only prudent to select and engage in sports specific activities to induce the kind of training benefits for peak performance in sports. A sprinter should be doing more sprint drills compared to long distance running. Although it is not wrong to do some endurance work in season to increase the overall cardiovascular output. The body of a sprinter will respond more specifically to fast twitch training by performing more sprint related drills and practice.
Adaptation refers to the body’s ability to adjust to increased or decreased physical demands and training. When we put our bodies through strenuous training activities, they will response to the increase stimuli by becoming stronger, more efficient and responsive with time in order to meet the new demands been set upon. Adaptation to exercise and training do not happen overnight, but the effects of increase activity can be felt within 24 hours. Soreness of muscles, lack of mobility and a general feel of fatigue are common responses to increase physical demands. Conversely, when training or physical activity levels are lower, the body will also adapt by becoming less efficient strong and responsive. This explains why athletes lose endurance levels if they stop training for even a short period of time. Hence, in the quest for peak performance in sports, it is important to raise activity levels to levels that will induce adaptations from the body.
The principle of overload goes hand in hand with adaptation. In order for the body to respond in a positive manner toward peak performance in sports, the activity load must be increased to a level that will signal the body to change. If we keep the same training intensity level, the body will respond by adapting to a level that will comfortably achieve all the required efforts. When this stage is reached, no further progress will be made unless the intensity level is raise. This is where the principle of overload comes in. Training intensity can be raised to induce the body system to continuously adapt.
When we overload in terms of training intensity, this must be done in a progressive way. If this is not done, serious injury can occur, and the body will not respond and adapt as well. For example, say a weight lifter can bench press 100kg comfortably now. In his quest for heavier lifts, if he raises his next training lifts to 150kg, the body will not be able to carry out the lifts as physiologically, the muscle capacities, energy generation and structural gain is just not strong even to sustain such drastic sudden overload. However, if the weight lifter raise his next lift by 5kg to 105kg, and practice that for a few days and weeks, the body will have the physiological capacities to sustain this training intensity. Once 105kg becomes comfortable, the athlete can than raise the resistance level by a small amount again. Progressive overload allows for the body to respond and adapt smoothly, leading to peak performance in sports with time.
The principle of reversibility is more a warning to athletes in serious training for peak performance in sports than anything else. “If you do not use it, you will lose it!” That is how fitness and sports skills are. An athlete who has gained immense endurance capacity to many months of training will lose this level of fitness gains in double quick time if he does not sustain his training intensity. Studies have shown that it takes 6 to 8 weeks to make significant aerobic gains through sound training, but that gain can disappear in 10 days without sustained training activities. In order to prevent this form of reversibility of training gains, athletes must seek to avoid lowering training intensity and also inactivity.
And finally the variation principle of sports training refers to having a wide range of activities to stimulate and sustain training motivation. It might appear to contradict the principle of specificity here, which is why it is important for coaches and athletes to really strike a balance between the two principles. When doing so, it is paramount to take into consideration the motivational levels of the athletes. Some athletes are very self-motivated to train for peak performance in sports. For these athletes, planning varied activities might not be necessary. For athletes with lower motivation levels, especially younger athletes, there is a need to constantly change activities to induce the necessary training improvements for peak performance in sports.
A tennis player intently focuses on an opponent serving the ball and anticipates how to successfully return it. Reaction time is the brief interval of time it takes for the player to determine how to play the ball before he or she ever begins to move.
An athlete’s ability to react determines how quickly he or she can make the right decision. Delays in responses can make the difference between winning and losing. Athletes who can accelerate the decision-making process have a competitive edge over their opponents.
The more possible moves an athlete can execute in a specific competitive situation, the more time it takes for an opponent to react successfully. This relationship is known as Hick’s law.
Tips to Improve Reaction Time and Decision Making
1. Study Opponents’ Most Likely Plays. When athletes know an opponent’s typical strategies or moves, they can narrow the number of possible counter plays. Scouting reports give valuable information to coaches who can help their teams anticipate opponents’ plays that signal planned counter moves.
2. Key in on Opponents’ Personal Cues. Spotting an opponent’s personal cues (e.g., their stance, where they focus) can telegraph their next move, narrowing the number choices and, thus, speeding up the athlete’s correct reaction.
3. Simulate Competitive Conditions. The amount and quality of practice under competitive conditions can reduce reaction time. Scrimmages and contest simulations teach athletes to make correct decisions under the added complexity and heightened anxiety levels of game conditions. For example, a black belt in a martial arts contest can accurately counter a variety of oncoming strikes from an opponent with minimal delay, particularly when familiar with the opponent’s actions under pressure.
4. Anticipate Defensive Players’ Actions. Offensive players can deceive opponents by luring them into responding to predictable moves . If opponents are unable to anticipate a new move, processing is slower. For example, a volleyball player may signal a spike, then suddenly execute a dink, effectively catching the defense off guard.
5. Find the Optimal Performance Zone. Reaction time and decision making are influenced by how aroused, or pumped up, athletes are. Athletes whose emotions too run high in competition may detect a limited number of key signals because their attentional focus narrows under pressure.
Coaches can help athletes maintain an optimal arousal level through the use of breathing exercises, progressive relaxation, visualization, and meditation skills. Achieving the optimal arousal zone promotes effective information processing, minimizing the adverse influence of high level competition on decision making.
Sports activities require a lot of effort and energy. You need to run fast and jump high in some of these activities. It is never easy to engage in any sport because you will need to have enough resistance, endurance and stamina for you to succeed on it.
Performance training makes you more fit and can keep you away from any harm during the activity. It can also help to improve your balance and flexibility. There are a lot of benefits for as long as you do it regularly and correctly.
Exercise routines have different effects for your body. Some will make you stronger or faster while others will make you lose weight easily. Performance training can help you to sustain your exercise routines longer than what you think you are capable of.
You may visit exercise experts like physiologists so that you will be able to know what you have to do to improve your performance. These experts can also help you formulate plans and activities that are appropriate for your age and body structure. These experts can help to improve your performance in a lot of things. Sports performance training improves your balance and flexibility.
Flexibility is a major part of most of the training programs available nowadays. It can make you less vulnerable to aches and possible pains that is common in most exercises and physical activities that you engage in. It is very vital to have good flexibility for you to join any activity that you prefer.
Another good effect of performance training is improved endurance and stamina. Good stamina and endurance will enable you to exert your maximum energy during trainings and physical activities. If you do performance trainings often, it will surely make you more resilient to stress and exhaustion. Good stamina is very beneficial when you want to join any sport activity.
A lot of people believe that they will attain maximum fitness during important competitions that are held annually. They prepare for that specific day for them to have a good performance during the event. But you have to remember that you must maintain your maximum performance all the time. This will stabilize your body and will make you more competitive than ever.
The old adage, practice makes perfect, is true throughout all industries, sports, and parts of life. Many of us hope to be very skill at various sports, but it is not always easy to organize pick-up games with friends. With busy schedules, it is often difficult to make it to the gym during normal business hours, so we are stuck shooting hoops on our own or throwing a baseball in the air, with no way of knowing what we’re doing wrong, or how to improve our game. With sports training aids, you can have 24-hour access to all the sports training equipment imaginable. There are so many different training aids that you can practice regardless of your friends’ and teammates’ schedules. The training aids help improve your skills while eliminating human error of practicing with others. They are a great addition to any individual or team oriented training plan, for youths and adults alike. Baseball trainers are not limited to the standard pitching machines that are commonly found at the batting cage. There are also swing trainers, training bats, pitch backs, practice nets, reaction balls and more to hone every aspect of your game. Baseball trainer materials are not just for hitters anymore. If you are a catcher, check out a reaction ball. Its unique shape forces it to bounce in various directions to increase your hand-eye coordination, and decrease your reaction time. Basketball training aids are much more advanced than you might expect. While some of the aids might seem like toys, they are also very valuable practice equipment items. Ball return systems are great for practicing for foul shots. The ball return nets and 180 degree shoot around ball returns send the ball right back to you. You can also install a covering to your rim that makes an 18-inch rim 15 inches or even smaller. This increases your shooting accuracy by forcing you to find the center of the hoop, and perfecting your arc. There are many other sports training aids available for kids to play with, athletes to train with, and adults to enjoy. Relieve a little stress, hone your skills, or develop new techniques with friends with some of the many different sports trainer tools available.
Many of us are gifted with athletic talents from the womb, while others develop athleticism by participating in a wide variety of sports. For those of us that participate in a wide variety of sports, but do not seem able to hone our skills, sports training equipment can be a helpful solution. There are many different lines of equipment to help you establish or simply hone your skills. Many high schools and colleges use them for indoor and outdoor training sessions with their teams, while little league and Rec organizations use them to help kids get comfortable with various aspects of sports. Recreational centers and afterschool programs can benefit from these training aids in many ways. It is a great way to get kids actively involved with sports and exercise, regardless of skill level. Team leaders can always organize events and games using a variety of sports equipment rather than establishing positions and skill levels for team events. They are much more inclusive, and they do not leave children feeling left out or unskilled. Sports teams of all levels and ages can also benefit from these aids. They are great at perfecting skills, as well as teaching proper techniques and forms for certain aspects of a sport. While many people are familiar with pitching machines and a few other baseball training aids, there are many different aids for a wide variety of sports including football, basketball, soccer, lacrosse, golf and many more. Basketball is a sport that simply needs a ball and a hoop, which makes it seem unlikely to have training aids and equipment. However, there is a great deal of skill required to play the game well, and training aids can be extremely helpful. Equipment such as defenders, shot trajectory trainers, basketball return systems, and rebounding trainers can help you perfect the arc on your shot, and simulate certain aspects of game day situations. So whether you want to find activities for your children, sports team, or afterschool kids, or merely just hone sports skills, sports training equipment is a great solution. Check out some of the options for your favorite sport and begin perfecting your athleticism.